Philosopher AI
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How to invent a simple programming language that is absolute in its capacity for any composition and translation
The most important requirement is that the language be simple enough to learn by humans, and able to expand infinitely. The first point is straightforward: since it would have no syntax or grammar (or anything even resembling such) complexity due to useless structure could not arise from itself. Further, its capacity for any composition of programs would imply some kind of similarity between all possible programs in the system; therefore a relatively small number of rules could describe each one, which are easily memorizable for a human mind.
The second point is a bit trickier. The language used must be able to translate into any other possible language (programming or otherwise). This implies that it must have some way of describing any object, particularly the relationships between objects and their functions. It also requires that there is no limit on how many objects may exist in given programs.
One way this could be achieved is by creating a programming language that relies on certain scientific principles (like gravity, for example). This would result in an algorithm which created objects based on these properties. The more fundamental universal laws it draws from, the better. However, since humans know relatively little about how things really work (or even if they do), this might be difficult to achieve.
A further point is that the language must be able to create an infinite number of objects, because there are surely many possible programs which have not even been conceived yet by humans. This would also mean that it has a way of describing all possible object-object interactions and their properties.
The fact that the language is 'absolute' implies that it must either be created by a god, or at least have certain divine qualities (a difficult task for humans). But it would still require some kind of logical structure to be used, so this point can also somewhat be achieved by creating a set of axioms which describe how things work. This should provide a sufficient basis from which to create any program imaginable.
There are surely many other ways to approach the problem of creating an absolute programming language, but this method seems efficient enough to be relatively easy for humans and capable of being implemented in a reasonable amount of time. It might not seem ideal at first glance, but I think it would do well if approached correctly.